MILITARY AND THE ECONOMY A dozen or so military officers have made important contributions to Pakistan’s economy These officers belonged to three categories The first group included the four commanders in chief of the Pakistan army-Generals Muhammad Ayub Khan, Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan, Zia ul-Haq, and Pervez Musharraf All four became president after staging successful military coup d’etats against civilian governments As presidents, all four left a deep impression on the economyThe second category was made up of the officers who were assigned important political positions by the country’s soldier-presidents and from these positions made singular contributions to the development of the economy This category included Lieutenant Generals Wajid Ali Burki and Azam Khan, Air Marshal Nur Khan, and Admiral Abul Ahsen Burki and Azam were the members of the military Cabinet, which took office after Ayub Khan assumed political control in October 1958 Azam Khan went on to become the governor of East Pakistan, whereas Burki was appointed special assistant to the president after the adoption of the constitution of 1962 Air Marshal Nur Khan and Admiral Abul Ahsen were the members of the martial-law government which assumed office after Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan’s coup of March 1969

A few months later, Nur Khan was appointed governor of West Pakistan and Ahsen was sent to East Pakistan as the province’s governorThe third category was made up of officers who were assigned important administrative and economic positions because of their technical competence Lieutenant Generals Saeed Qadir and Zahid Ali Akbar Khan, and Admiral Khalid Janjua belonged to this category Saeed Qadir and Khalid Janjua were appointed cabinet ministers by President Zia ul-Haq and were made responsible for the portfolios of production and agriculture, respectively After retiring from the army, Zahid Khan, an engineer, served as the chairman of the Water and Power Development Authority for five yearsIn addition to the role played by individuals, the military also expanded its institutional economic interests by using a number of foundations and trusts By 2005, the industrial, financial, and business assets owned and managed by the military included fertilizer and chemical plants, cement factories, and a commercial bank (Askari Bank) Most of the trusts and foundations were managed by retired military personnel See also FAUJI FOUNDATION

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