ISLAMI JAMHURI ITEHAD (IJI) The Islami Jamhuri Itehad (Islamic Democratic Alliance) was organized in September 1988 to challenge the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) in the elections of November 1988 The alliance was made up of nine parties, including the two factions of the Muslim League into which the party split after the death of President Zia ul-Haq The IJI also included the powerful Jamaat-e-Islami as well as the Tehrik-e-Istiqlal The alliance won only 53 seats in the National Assembly, against 92 secured by the PPP Most of its seats were won in Punjab Most important IJI leaders lost the election; the only exception was Mian Nawaz Sharif, Zia ul-Haq’s protégé from Punjab Mian Nawaz Sharif resigned from his National Assembly seat and went to Lahore, where he formed an IJI provincial governmentThe IJI won the majority of National Assembly seats in the 1990 elections, which were held following the dismissal of the PPP administration by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan It was invited to form the government with Mian Nawaz Sharif as prime minister

The IJI government was dismissed by President Khan in April 1993, on charges of corruption and incompetence The Supreme Court overturned the president’s action, declaring it unconstitutional, and restored the government of Mian Nawaz Sharif The Supreme Court’s action did not end the conflict between the president and the prime minister, however Working behind the scenes, General Abdul Waheed Kakar, the army chief of staff, forced the president and the prime minister to resign Another round of elections was held in October 1993 (see ELECTIONS OF 1993), in which the Muslim League decided to participate independently, rather than as a member of the coalition This decision led to the demise of the IJI

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