HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) defined a new index to measure human welfare The index went beyond the gross domestic product (GDP)the standard measure that had been used to gauge the size of an economy This index has three components: longevity, knowledge, and decent living standards The index, first developed in the 1991Human Development Report issued by the UNDP, rated Japan and Barbados as the top performers among developed and developing countries, respectively, and Rumania and Sierra Leone as the poorest performers in these two categories of countries Among the 160 countries ranked by the report, Pakistan was ranked at 120, India 123, Bangladesh 136, Nepal 145, and Afghanistan 157 In 1998, the UNDP placed Pakistan at 134 among 174, only one place above India By 2005, Pakistan’s ranking had dropped below that of India See also HAQ, MAHBUBUL

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