GREEN REVOLUTION, SECOND The second green revolution began in the mid-1980s, and its consequence was the move toward commercialization of agriculture It was centered around the use of modern inputs in agriculture-in particular, farm chemicals and labor-saving machinery-and its beneficiaries were principally the producers of such cash crops as cotton, fruits, and vegetables Three circumstances led to the launching of the second green revolution First was the migration of millions of people from Pakistan to the Middle East in the late 1970s This movement of people created serious shortages of labor in the countryside of Punjab and the Northwest Frontier Province and forced the farming community to mechanize some parts of their production process Once the farmers came into the market to purchase and service machinery, they were also exposed to other features of commercial agriculture As was the case with the first green revolution, it was the middle-scale farmer who led the agricultural sector in bringing its second revolution Second, the nationalization of large-scale industry by the administration of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in the early 1970s persuaded both old and new industrial entrepreneurs to concentrate their efforts in small industries Denationalization of agro-industries by the government of President Zia ul-Haq in the late 1970s further encouraged these entrepreneurs Most of these industries had strong links with the agricultural sector and required marketable agricultural surpluses as inputs; and they began to provide incentives to the farming community to produce them

Cotton growers were the first to respond to this increase in demand for their produce; they were soon followed by other producers of cash crops Third, the establishment of Pakistani communities in the Middle East, Western Europe, and the United States created a demand for Pakistani products, particularly processed food, giving further impetus to both the small industrialists and commercial farmers The second green revolution had a decisive impact on the cottongrowing areas of Punjab and Sindh Before its advent, some 700,000 tons of cotton lint were being produced in these areas; by the early 1990s, output had increased to well over 15 million tons As a consequence, Pakistan is now one of the major cotton-growing countries in the world, producing, in good years, as much as 10 percent of the world’s total cotton crop It has an even greater presence in world cotton trade, accounting, again in good years, for some 20 percent of the total world trade in cotton There were large increases of output of fruits and vegetables as well; for instance, the production of citrus doubled over the 10-year period from the late 1970s to the late 1980s, increasing from an average of 723,000 tons to 151 million tons There was a corresponding increase in exports of fruits from the country In the late 1970s, Pakistan exported on average some 74,000 tons of fruits, mostly to the markets in theMiddle East

This increased to an average of 100,000 tons in the late 1980s

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