GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT OF 1935 The Government of India Act of 1935 granted provinces the right to govern themselves with some constraints The legislative councils set up under the Government of India Act of 1919 were replaced with legislative assemblies The provincial governor appointed a prime minister who, along with his cabinet, was responsible to the provincial assembly In the case of breakdown of the cabinet government or in a financial emergency caused, for instance, by the failure of the assembly to pass a budget, the governor had the power to assume the functioning of the government The Act envisaged a similar setup at the center, provided that the “princely states” could be brought into the constitutional structure created by the Act This did not happen, since most princes refused to accept what would have been a considerable encroachment on their authority The 1935 Act, amended by the Indian Independence Act of 1947, served as the constitution of both India and Pakistan until each adopted its own constitution Two sets of provincial elections were held under the Act of 1935- one in 1937 and the other in 1946 In the first, the Muslim League did very poorly; in the second, however, the League scored impressive electoral gains in most provinces in which the Muslims were in the majority

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